Marijuana Grow Cases in Minnesota
Prosecutors file marijuana grow charges in both federal and state courts. Marijuana grow defense attorney Thomas Gallagher provides an overview of Minnesota criminal marijuana grow laws.
But most marijuana growing prosecutions are in State court, not federal. One reason? If harmful to health at all, marijuana is safer than other drugs. And not only that — the majority of the United States population has tried it at least once.
In addition, many United States Presidents smoked marijuana. And later we elected them to the highest public office.
Two Americas: So while some go to the White House; others go to the jailhouse.
A valued plant through history
Humans used the cannabis plant for thousands of years. Since the dawn of history, people grew the cannabis as fiber and food (Hemp) and as a psychoactive agent (Marijuana).
All over the world, people have used cannabis. Yet adult-use marijuana was dominant in the warmer climate areas of the world.
In fact, George Washington himself grew Cannabis on his farm. There was no such thing as a criminal law prohibiting Marijuana or Cannabis.
Until the 1930s in the United States, that is. Now, in the 21st Century, our nation may be coming to its senses. And we may End Prohibition again, and Re-Legalize Marijuana.
See our: How to Get Out of Jail After Arrest – Tips for Getting Her Out.
Marijuana Partial-Legalization Law of 2023
In late 2023, we expect a new marijuana partial legalization law in Minnesota. We’ll be fully updating our webpages accordingly. Effective August 1, 2023, it includes:
- Rescheduling to Schedule 3 (instead of full legalization which would require descheduling);
- Possession by adults still a Prohibition crime, but at a higher felony weight threshold: two pounds;
- Legalizing home grow of up to four mature (flowering) plants).
- Civil penalty for growing too many plants.
- But criminal penalty for “possessing” too much. (aka Prohibition)
Minnesota’s Criminal Prohibition of Marijuana: Grow laws
Unlike other states, Minnesota State Statutes still provide for criminal remedies when sought by the government, for marijuana.
And most of these drug prosecutions are under Minnesota Statutes Chapter 152, titled “Drugs, Controlled Substances.”
Until a few years ago, if you possessed growing marijuana, the government could prosecute you for possessing it. Only with evidence of an actual sale; could the government prosecute for criminal sale of the malum prohibitum. That was then.
(Sale of a “controlled substance” in Minnesota is a felony. And a “sale crime” carries a longer prison sentence, than “criminal possession.”)
In recent years, however, the prohibitionists expanded the laws to create a new legal fiction targeting the marijuana grow.
They created a crime by technicality provision – to turn possession of growing marijuana into a fictional “sale.”
A Rose is a Rose is a … Sale?
How did the ingenuous legislature do it? It’s a complex bit of sophistry. But here goes:
- Prosecutors can charge a person in Possession of growing marijuana with a Controlled Substance Crime of Possession.
- Then the government changed the definition of “Sell” in Minnesota Statutes Section 152.01, subd. 15a, to now include “to manufacture.” Get that? So their claim is that “to “manufacture” is the same thing as “to sell.”
- Next, in their new definition of “Manufacture” at Minnesota Statutes Section 152.01, subd. 7, they have defined “manufacture” to mean “cultivation” of “drugs.”
So you see? By legislative fiat they purport to, first, define “cultivation” as “manufacture.” And then, next, they presume to define “manufacture” as “sell.”
So, according to these lawmakers – and their lobbyists – cultivation is manufacture is selling.
They seem to believe that they have the legal power to turn black into white; and possession into sale.
Just think of all the Minnesota farmers and gardeners! So now they should be able to avoid the labor of harvesting, processing, distribution and sale; once grown! After all, according to the Minnesota legislature merely growing is “a sale.”
Instead, the money from the “sale” must magically appear in their pockets. Thanks Minnesota legislature!
Does the word “Cultivate” actually mean “Sell?”
No? Well, the Minnesota legislature claims otherwise. Minnesota’s marijuana grow laws contain nonsense.
Minnesota lawmakers, influenced by the state’s prosecutors, have taken a page from Humpty Dumpty in Alice Through the Lookinglass:
“When I use a word,” Humpty Dumpty said in a rather scornful tone, “it means just what I choose it to mean – neither more nor less.”Lewis Carroll, Alice Through the Looking-Glass (1872)
“The question is,” said Alice, “whether you can make a words mean so many different things.“
“The question is,” said Humpty Dumpty, “which is to be the master – that’s all.”
But Henry Hart and Albert Sacks warn:
“Language is a social institution. Humpty Dumpty was wrong when he said that you can make words mean whatever you want them to mean. The language belongs to the whole society and not to the legislature in office for the time being.”Henry Hart & Albert Sacks, The Legal Process: Basic Problems in the Making and Application of Law (Cambridge, Mass, 1957), p. 1338
Drug prohibitionists appear desperate about the marijuana grow. Why else put this kind of tortured language into Minnesota law?
But what about us?
Should we allow criminal conviction of a person on a technicality? Should we allow the government to ruin a person’s life with overreaching, irrational laws?
Statutory nonsense verse
The legislature thinks it can define terms in any way they wish; regardless of their common meaning.
But like Humpty Dumpty in Alice, sometimes they go too far. The legislature gives words a statutory definition completely divorced from their common meaning. And they’ve done it again – in Minnesota’s marijuana cultivation laws.
Limits on legislative power – marijuana grow
Yet – their power does have limits.
And We, the People, are complicit in unjust marijuana cultivation laws to the extent that we tolerate them. So we must hold the legislature accountable, when need be.
The courts can strike down such nonsense as unconstitutional. And we can ask the courts to do so.
Notice and our Right to Due Process
Notice is a cornerstone of fundamental fairness in criminal law. And the U.S. and Minnesota Constitutions say that any criminal law is void; if it fails to give fair notice of what conduct is off-limits. It’s no law at all.
Like when legislative language targeting the marijuana grow equates “cultivate” with “sell;” then punishes someone who did not actually sell marijuana more severely. That is not fair notice at all.
The power of the conscience of the community – the jury
And the People on the Jury have the power of Jury Nullification.
The jury can acquit anyone of criminal charges based on a law that that the Jury finds to be nonsense.
Even one juror can veto the law. One lone dissenter on the juror has the power to stop a “guilty” verdict. Why? Because a verdict in a criminal case must be unanimous. Just one can hang a jury verdict.
The framers designed this jury power to be a check and balance on government power. The jury’s power limits the power of the elites in the legislative, executive and judicial branches.
If the judge won’t dismiss a prosecution based on these nonsense marijuana grow laws, they jury still can.
Grow a tomato; money magically appears?
If you grow a tomato in your backyard, then eat it there off the vine; have you by doing so also “Sold” it? Replace “tomato” with “marijuana.” Same conclusion?
Minnesota Statutes §152.01, subd. 15a, defines “Sell” to include “to manufacture.” Then, , their definition of “Manufacture” in Minnesota Statutes §152.01, subd. 7, means “cultivation” of “drugs.”
Tricky, aren’t they?
By redefining the common meaning of words, they attempt to turn “growing marijuana” into a “sale;” even where no sale took place. No money. No buyer. That’s how low Minnesota’s marijuana grow laws go.
New marijuana grow law: number of plants
A recent Minnesota statutes amendment added a new criteria for severity level – number of “plants.” Minnesota Statutes Section 152.021, subd. 2 , First Degree Controlled Substance Crime – Possession:
(6) the person unlawfully possesses one or more mixtures of a total weight of 50 kilograms or more containing marijuana or Tetrahydrocannabinols, or possesses 500 or more marijuana plants.
And a similar provision is now in Minnesota Statutes Section 152.022, subd. 2 , Second Degree Controlled Substance Crime – Possession:
(6) the person unlawfully possesses one or more mixtures of a total weight of 25 kilograms or more containing marijuana or Tetrahydrocannabinols, or possesses 100 or more marijuana plants.
But the Third Degree through Fifth Degree criminal statutes make no mention of “plants.”
So, this brings into state cases an issue that has plagued federal cases for years. What is a “plant?” One thing for certain is that a rootless clone is not a plant.
But using the number of plants as a measure of severity makes little sense. It’s not good public policy. We should delete it from the law. Better yet, re-legalize, with legal small-batch home grow, for both medical marijuana and adult-use.
But in the meantime, marijuana grow defense attorney Thomas Gallagher works hard to defend the innocent people caught up in these criminal prosecutions.
Cannabis is the plant.
But “Marijuana” and “hemp” are legal categories.
Now that hemp is legal, we must remember that marijuana comes from the same cannabis plant.
And though hemp is now legal to possess, the state regulates growing hemp. (And “regulation” is civil, not criminal, law.)
The difference between hemp and marijuana is the THC level in the plant.
But on July 1, 2019, Minnesota laws changed. They now define hemp by THC level in the products of the plant as well.
Identification of the alleged marijuana is a burden for the prosecuting attorney. And if they can’t prove it with evidence, the defendant is not-guilty.
Marijuana grow laws: Another Failure in the Government War on the People
Since the 1930s, Prohibitionists claimed that they could stop the Supply. Then, they would use State-violence to force People to conform. They seem to believe that government threats of violence, prosecution, imprisonment would stop people from using it. And they claimed that simply making it a crime could reduce usage.
Prohibition increases usage
Of course, as economist Milton Friedman pointed out; curtailing supply increases the price where demand is strong.
Then the price increases lead to increases in supply.
And so the cycle has gone for decades – until now. The marijuana usage rate in the United States increased from cultural niche in 1934, to a now near-universal social experience.
Blaming the victim for the law’s harms
In past decades Prohibitionist propaganda asserted that buying marijuana in the underground economy was like supporting terrorism overseas.
But as the government “war” on marijuana imports raged, a funny thing happened.
Economist Milton Friedman was right: marijuana became the number one cash crop in United States agriculture (and still is).
It is easy to grow. The government’s drug wars against The People are a complete and unmitigated failure. The government just won’t admit it, yet.
Meanwhile, Minnesota Marijuana Grow Defense Attorney Thomas C Gallagher helps people busted for growing in the last days of Prohibition.
Don’t become another casualty of the government’s failed drug war. Fight back. Call Thomas Gallagher. 612 333-1500
See: Marijuana Legalization in Minnesota: What Should It Look like?
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Minnesota’s Incomplete Marijuana Decriminalization – Resinous Form Exception
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